Friday, March 26, 2021, 9:30am-6:30pm EST Via Zoom


For nearly twenty-five years, Richard K. Betts served as Director of the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University. During that time, he not only helped to transform the Institute into a world-class center of academic foreign-policy thought, he also remained (and remains) an active force in the discipline of international relations, conducting cutting-edge research, writing, and teaching as the Leo A. Shifrin Professor of War and Peace Studies in the Department of Political Science at Columbia. To commemorate the recent retirement of Dr. Betts as Saltzman Institute director, this day-long tribute — filled with high-powered panels and personal attestations — will celebrate the body of his work and the vast influence he has had on academic scholarship and foreign-policy thinking, along with the countless colleagues and students he has inspired along the way.


9:30 a.m. – Welcome and Introduction

Merit Janow, Dean, School of International and Public Affairs
Keren Yarhi-Milo, Director, Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies, Columbia University

10:00 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. – Panel I: Soldiers and Statesmen

Peter Feaver, Duke University
Col. Suzanne Nielsen, U.S. Military Academy, West Point
Cynthia Roberts, Hunter College, City University of New York
Moderated by Stephen Biddle, Columbia University

12:00 p.m. – 1:45 p.m. – Panel II: Intelligence and Decision Makers

Robert Jervis, Columbia University
Paul Pillar, Georgetown University
James Wirtz, Naval Postgraduate School
Peter Clement, Columbia University
Moderated by Keren Yarhi-Milo, Columbia University

2:00 p.m.  – 3:45 p.m. – Panel III: Force and Foreign Policy

John Mearsheimer, University of Chicago
Barry Posen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Stephen Rosen, Harvard University
Scott Sagan, Stanford University
Moderated by Thomas Christensen, Columbia University

4:00 p.m. – 5:45 p.m.  – Panel IV: Tributes and Tributaries

Stuart Gottlieb, Columbia University
Lisa Anderson, Columbia University
Stephen Walt, Harvard University
Erica Borghard, Atlantic Council
Michael O’Hara, U.S. Naval War College
Moderated by V. Page Fortna and Jack Snyder, Columbia University

Special Guests and Audience Anecdotes

6:00 p.m. – 6:30 pm. – Closing Remarks
Richard K. Betts, Columbia University
Keren Yarhi-Milo, Columbia University


Richard K. Betts is the Leo A. Shifrin Professor of War and Peace Studies in the Department of Political Science, and Co-Director of the International Security Policy (ISP) program in the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University.  Betts served as Director of the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies for 23 years, and as Director of National Security Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations for four years, where he is now an adjunct Senior Fellow.  Previously he was a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution and adjunct Lecturer at the Johns Hopkins University’s Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. Betts also served at different times on the Harvard University faculty as Lecturer and Visiting Professor.  He invented the Summer Workshop on Analysis of Military Operations and Strategy (SWAMOS) and has directed it since 1997, now co-directing with colleague Stephen Biddle. Betts received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in Government from Harvard.

A former staff member of the original Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (the Church Committee), the National Security Council, and the Mondale Presidential Campaign, Betts has been an occasional consultant to the National Intelligence Council and Departments of State and Defense, served on the Military Advisory Panel for three Directors of Central Intelligence in the 1990s and later on the External Advisory Board for the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, and was a Commissioner of the National Commission on Terrorism (the Bremer Commission).  He lectures occasionally at schools such as the National War College, Foreign Service Institute, and service academies.  He served briefly long ago as an officer in the U.S. Army.

Betts’ first book, Soldiers, Statesmen, and Cold War Crises, originally published by Harvard University Press, was issued in a second edition by Columbia University Press.  He is author of two other Columbia University Press books: Enemies of Intelligence and American Force; three books published by the Brookings Institution: Surprise Attack, Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance, and Military Readiness; coauthor and editor of three other Brookings books: The Irony of Vietnam, Nonproliferation and U.S. Foreign Policy, and Cruise Missiles; editor of Conflict After the Cold War, published by Routledge; and co-editor of Paradoxes of Strategic Intelligence, from Cass.  Betts has published numerous articles on foreign policy, military strategy, intelligence, conventional forces, nuclear weapons, arms trade, collective security, strategic issues in Asia and Europe, terrorism, and other subjects in professional journals.  His writings have won five prizes, and he received the International Studies Association’s ISSS Distinguished Scholar Award in 2005 and MIT’s Doolittle Award in 2012.

Panel I: Intelligence and Decision Makers (10:00 a.m.)

Peter D. Feaver is a Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Duke University.  He is Director of the Duke Program in American Grand Strategy. Feaver is author of Armed Servants: Agency, Oversight, and Civil-Military Relations (Harvard Press, 2003) and of Guarding the Guardians: Civilian Control of Nuclear Weapons in the United States (Cornell University Press, 1992). He is co-author: with Christopher Gelpi and Jason Reifler, of Paying the Human Costs of War (Princeton Press, 2009); with Susan Wasiolek and Anne Crossman, of Getting the Best Out of College (Ten Speed Press, 2008, 2nd edition 2012); and with Christopher Gelpi, of Choosing Your Battles: American Civil-Military Relations and the Use of Force (Princeton Press, 2004). He is co-editor, with Richard H. Kohn, of Soldiers and Civilians: The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security (MIT Press, 2001).  He has published numerous other monographs, scholarly articles, book chapters, and policy pieces on grand strategy, American foreign policy, public opinion, nuclear proliferation, civil-military relations, and cybersecurity.

From June 2005 to July 2007, Feaver served as Special Advisor for Strategic Planning and Institutional Reform on the National Security Council Staff at the White House where his responsibilities included the national security strategy, regional strategy reviews, and other political-military issues. In 1993-94, Feaver served as Director for Defense Policy and Arms Control on the National Security Council at the White House where his responsibilities included the national security strategy review, counter-proliferation policy, regional nuclear arms control, and other defense policy issues.  He is an emeritus member of the Aspen Strategy Group, blogs at “Elephants in the Room” at, and is a Contributing Editor to Foreign Policy magazine. Feaver holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Suzanne C. Nielsen, a Colonel in the U.S. Army, is a Professor of Political Science and the head of the Department of Social Sciences at West Point, where she teaches courses in international relations and national security. An intelligence officer by background, she has served in the United States, Germany, the Balkans, Korea, and Iraq. From February to July 2008, she was the deputy director of the Multi-National Forces-Iraq Commander’s Initiatives Group in Baghdad. She has also served as a special assistant to the Director, NSA/CSS, and Commander, U.S. Cyber Command. Her research interests include change in military organizations, civil-military relations, and cyber policy and strategy. Her books include American National Security, 7th Edition, which she co-authored, and American Civil-Military Relations: The Soldier and the State in a New Era, which she co-edited, both released by Johns Hopkins University Press. Other publications include monographs, book chapters, and journal articles on understanding military change, civil-military relations, and cyber policy. Her dissertation, “Preparing for War: the Dynamics of Peacetime Military Reform,” won the American Political Science Association’s Lasswell Award for the best dissertation in the field of public policy in 2002 and 2003.

A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy with a B.S. in political science, she holds a masters degree from the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and is an alum of the National War College.  She also holds an M.A. and Ph.D. in political science from Harvard University.  She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and serves on the governing council of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society.

Cynthia Roberts is Professor of Political Science at Hunter College, City University of New York. She is also a Senior Research Scholar at the Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies and Adjunct Professor of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University. In 2019, with support from a Council on Foreign Relations fellowship, Roberts served as a policy adviser at the Joint Staff, Department of Defense in J-5, Strategy, Plans and Policy. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Previously, Roberts was Director of the Russian Area Studies Graduate Program at Hunter College and served as a member of the Executive Committee on Science, Arms Control and National Security of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Roberts’ research spans military and financial statecraft and she has worked extensively on Russian and European security problems. Her most recent book, The BRICS and Collective Financial Statecraft (with L. Armijo and S. Katada) was published by Oxford University Press in 2018 and will come out in a Chinese edition in 2021. She is also the author of Russia and the European Union: The Sources and Limits of ‘Special Relationships’ (2007) and the editor of and contributor to a special issue on Challengers or Stakeholders? BRICs and the Liberal World Order in Polity (2010). Roberts has published numerous articles in scholarly journals, book chapters, and policy papers, including recently on such topics as: blowback and escalation risks from the US weaponization of finance; the BRICS in the era of renewed great power competition; Russian nuclear doctrine; coping with nuclear terrorism and nuclear weapons proliferation; and the political and military sources of the Soviet catastrophe in 1941. Roberts received an M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. from Columbia University and also a certificate from the Harriman Institute at Columbia.

Stephen Biddle is Professor of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, and Adjunct Senior Fellow for Defense Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations. He has served on the Defense Department’s Defense Policy Board, on General David Petraeus’ Joint Strategic Assessment Team in Baghdad in 2007, as a Senior Advisor to the Central Command Assessment Team in Washington in 2008-9, as a member of General Stanley McChrystal’s Initial Strategic Assessment Team in Kabul in 2009, and on a variety of other government advisory panels and analytical teams. Biddle lectures regularly at the U.S. Army War College and other military schools, and has presented testimony before congressional committees on issues relating to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria; force planning; conventional net assessment; and European arms control.

Biddle’s new book, Nonstate Warfare: The Military Methods of Guerillas, Warlords, and Militias will be released by Princeton University Press on April 6, 2021. His previous book, Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle (Princeton University Press, 2004) won four prizes, including the Council on Foreign Relations Arthur Ross Award Silver Medal for 2005, and the 2005 Huntington Prize from the Harvard University Olin Institute for Strategic Studies. His other publications include articles in Foreign AffairsInternational SecuritySurvivalThe Journal of PoliticsSecurity StudiesThe Journal of Strategic StudiesThe Journal of Conflict ResolutionInternational Studies QuarterlyThe New Republic, The American Interest, The National InterestOrbisThe Washington QuarterlyContemporary Security Policy, Defense Analysis, Joint Force Quarterly, and Military Operations Research; shorter pieces on military topics in The New York Times, The Washington PostThe Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, and other news outlets; various chapters in edited volumes; and 31 NATO and U.S. government sponsored reports and monographs.

Biddle has held the Elihu Root chair in military studies at the U.S. Army War College, the Roger Hertog Senior Fellowship at the Council on Foreign Relations, and other teaching and research positions at George Washington University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), and Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA). Biddle co-directs the Columbia University Summer Workshop on the Analysis of Military Operations and Strategy (SWAMOS), and his research has won Barchi, Rist, and Impact Prizes from the Military Operations Research Society.

He was awarded the U.S. Army Superior Civilian Service Medal in 2003 and again in 2006, and was presented with the US Army Commander’s Award for Public Service in Baghdad in 2007. He holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Panel II: Intelligence and Decision Makers (12:00 p.m.)

Peter Clement is a senior research fellow and adjunct professor at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs.  In 2018, he retired from the CIA, where he held several senior analytic and management positions, most recently as Deputy Assistant Director of CIA for Europe and Eurasia; prior positions included eight years as Deputy Director for Intelligence for Analytic Programs, and Director of the Office of Russian and Eurasian Analysis. Clement served as the PDB daily briefer for Vice-President Cheney, NSC Adviser Rice and Deputy NSC Adviser Hadley in 2003-2004 and did a brief tour at the National Security Council as the Director for Russia and later as the senior CIA representative to the US Mission to the United Nations.

Clement has been a member of the Council on Foreign Relations since 2001 and is a longtime member of the Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies. He has taught Russian history and politics for over 10 years at the University of Maryland, the University of Virginia’s northern Virginia campus, and two years as a visiting professor at Columbia (2013-2015). Clement has published journal articles and book chapters on Soviet and Russian foreign policy, Central Asia, and the Cuban missile crisis. He holds a Ph.D. in Russian history and an M.A. in Modern European history from Michigan State University, and a B.A. in liberal arts from SUNY-Oswego.

Robert Jervis is Adlai E. Stevenson Professor of International Politics at Columbia University. His most recent book is Chaos in the Liberal Order, with Francis J. Gavin, Joshua Rovner, and Diane Labrosse (Columbia University Press, 2018). His other books include, International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues, with Robert Art (Pearson Press, 2015),

Why Intelligence Fails: Lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War (Cornell University Press, 2010). His book System Effects: Complexity in Political Life (Princeton University Press, 1997) was a co-winner of the APSA’s Psychology Section Best Book Award, and The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution (Cornell University Press, 1989) won the Grawemeyer Award for Ideas Improving World Order. He is also the author of The Logic of Images in International Relations (Princeton University Press, 1970; 2d ed., Columbia University Press, 1989), Perception and Misperception in International Politics (Princeton University Press, 1976), The Illogic of American Nuclear Strategy (Cornell University Press, 1984), American Foreign Policy in a New Era (Routledge, 2005), and over 150 other publications.

Jervis was President of the American Political Science Association in 2000-01 and has received career achievement awards from the International Society of Political Psychology and ISA’s Security Studies Section. In 2006 he received the National Academy of Science’s tri-annual award for behavioral sciences contributions to avoiding nuclear war and has received honorary degrees from Oberlin College and the University of Venice. He was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1978-79 and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Academy of Political and Social Science and the American Philosophical Society. Jervis chairs the Historical Review Panel for the CIA and is an Intelligence Community associate. His current research includes the nature of beliefs, IR theory and the Cold War, and the links between signaling and perception.

Paul Pillar is a Nonresident Senior Fellow of the Center for Security Studies in the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University and a Fellow of the Quincy Institute for Responsible Statecraft.  He retired in 2005 from a 28-year career in the U.S. intelligence community, in which his last position was National Intelligence Officer for the Near East and South Asia. Earlier he served in a variety of analytical and managerial positions, including as chief of analytic units at the CIA covering portions of the Near East, the Persian Gulf, and South Asia. Pillar also served in the National Intelligence Council as one of the original members of its Analytic Group. He has been Executive Assistant to CIA’s Deputy Director for Intelligence and Executive Assistant to Director of Central Intelligence William Webster. He has also headed the Assessments and Information Group of the DCI Counterterrorist Center, and from 1997 to 1999 was deputy chief of the center. He was a Federal Executive Fellow at the Brookings Institution in 1999-2000.  Pillar was a visiting professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University from 2005 to 2012.

Pillar received an A.B. summa cum laude from Dartmouth College, a B.Phil. from Oxford University, and an M.A. and Ph.D. from Princeton University.  He is a retired officer in the U.S. Army Reserve and served on active duty in 1971-1973, including a tour of duty in Vietnam. He is the author of Negotiating Peace: War Termination as a Bargaining Process (Princeton University Press, 1983); Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy (Brookings Institution Press, 2001; second edition 2003); Intelligence and U.S. Foreign Policy: Iraq, 9/11, and Misguided Reform (Columbia University Press, 2011); and Why America Misunderstands the World: National Experience and Roots of Misperception (Columbia University Press, 2016).  He is a contributing editor of The National Interest and writes frequently for that publication and Responsible Statecraft.

James J. Wirtz joined the Naval Postgraduate School in 1990 as a professor for the department of National Security Affairs. He has taught courses on nuclear strategy, international relations theory, and intelligence while at NPS. Wirtz served as chair of the National Security Affairs Department from January 2000 and January 2005 and as dean of the School of International Graduate Studies from 2008 to 2020. He also served between 2009 and 2014 as the director of the Global Center for Security Cooperation, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. In 2016, the Intelligence Studies Section of the International Studies Association honored him as a Distinguished Scholar. He is also editor of the Palgrave Macmillan series, Initiatives in Strategic Studies: Issues and Policies

Wirtz is a past president of the International Security and Arms Control Section of the American Political Science Association and the former section chair of the Intelligence Studies Section of the International Studies Association. He completed his third term on the governing board of the Security Studies Section of the International Studies Association in 2020. In 2005, he was a visiting professor at the Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University. He began his teaching career at Franklin & Marshall College, Penn State University and the State University of New York, Binghamton.

He is the author of Understanding Intelligence Failure: Warning Response and Deterrence (Routledge, 2017) and The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War (Cornell University Press, 1991, 1994); co-editor with T.V. Paul and Richard Harknett of The Absolute Weapon Revisited: Nuclear Arms and the Emerging International Order (Michigan University Press, 1998, 2000); co-editor with Peter Lavoy and Scott Sagan of Planning the Unthinkable: New Powers and their Doctrines for Using Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Weapons (Cornell University Press, 2000); co-editor with Jeffrey Larsen of Rockets’ Red Glare: National Missile Defense and the Future of World Politics (Westview, 2001); co-editor with Roy Godson of Strategic Denial and Deception (Transaction, 2002); co-editor with Eliot Cohen, Colin Gray and John Baylis of Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford, 2002, 2006, 2009, 2013, 2016, 2019); co-editor with Loch Johnson of Intelligence: Windows Into a Hidden World (Roxberry, 2004); co-editor with T.V. Paul and Michelle Fortmann of Balance of Power: Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (Stanford: 2004); co-editor with Eric Croddy of the Encyclopedia of Weapons of Mass Destruction (ABC-Clio, 2004); co-editor with Jeffrey A. Larsen of Nuclear Transformation: The New U.S. Nuclear Doctrine (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005); co-editor with Loch Johnson of Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies (Oxford 2007, 2010, 2014, 2019); co-editor with James Russell of Globalization and WMD Proliferation: Terrorism, Transnational Networks and International Security (Routledge, 2007); co-editor with Jeffrey Larsen of Stability from the Sea: Naval Roles in Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Operations (Routledge, 2009); co-editor with Jeffrey Larsen of Arms Control and Cooperative Security (Lynne Rienner, 2009), co-editor with T.V. Paul and Pat Morgan of Complex Deterrence (Chicago, 2009); co-editor with Peter Lavoy of Over the Horizon Proliferation Threats (Stanford, 2012); co-editor with Jeffrey Larsen and Eric Croddy of Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Essential Reference Guide (ABC-Clio, 2018); and co-editor with Jeffrey Larsen of U.S. Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications. His work on intelligence, deterrence, the Vietnam war, and military innovation and strategy has been published in many major journals.

Wirtz holds a B.A. and M.A. from the University of Delaware, and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. He was a John M. Olin Pre-Doctoral Fellow at the Center for International Affairs, Harvard University.

Keren Yarhi-Milo is the Director of the Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies and the Arnold A. Saltzman Professor of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University. Her research and teaching focus on international relations and foreign policy, with a particular specialization in international security, including foreign policy decision-making, interstate communication and crisis bargaining, intelligence, and US foreign policy in the Middle East.

Her book,  Who Fights for Reputation? The Psychology of Leaders in International Conflict, (Princeton University Press, 2018) received the 2019 Best Book Award on Foreign Policy from the American Political Science Association, and the Biennial Best Foreign Policy Book Award from the International Studies Association – which will be presented at the 2021 ISA Annual Convention. Yarhi-Milo’s first book,  Knowing The Adversary: Leaders, Intelligence Organizations, and Assessments of Intentions in International Relations, (Princeton University Press, 2014) received the 2016 Furnnis Award for best book in the field of international security, and was Co-Winner of the 2016 DPLST Book Prize, Diplomatic Studies Section of the International Studies Association. Yarhi-Milo’s articles have been published or are forthcoming in International Studies Quarterly, International Organization, International Security, British Journal of Political Science, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Foreign Affairs, and Security Studies.

Before joining the faculty at Columbia University, she was a tenured Associate Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University’s Politics Department and the Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Affairs. Yarhi-Milo has been a  post-doc fellow at the Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and a pre-

doc fellow at the Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. Yarhi-Milo has worked at the Mission of Israel to the United Nations, as well as served in the Israeli Defense Forces Intelligence Branch. Her dissertation received the Kenneth Waltz Award for the best dissertation in the field of International Security and Arms Control in 2010. She has also received awards for the study of Political Science from the Smith Richardson Foundation, the Arthur Ross Foundation, and the Abram Morris Foundation. Yarhi-Milo holds a Ph.D. and a Master’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania, and a B.A., summa cum laude, in Political Science from Columbia University.

Panel III:  Force and Foreign Policy (2:00 p.m.)

John J. Mearsheimer is the R. Wendell Harrison Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago, where he has taught since 1982. He graduated from West Point in 1970 and then served five years as an officer in the U.S. Air Force. He then started graduate school in political science at Cornell University in 1975. He received his PhD in 1980. He spent the 1979-1980 academic year as a research fellow at the Brookings Institution, and was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University’s Center for International Affairs from 1980 to 1982. During the 1998-1999 academic year, Mearsheimer was the Whitney H. Shepardson Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York.

Mearsheimer has written extensively about security issues and international politics more generally. He has published six books: Conventional Deterrence (1983), which won the Edgar S. Furniss, Jr., Book Award; Liddell Hart and the Weight of History (1988); The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (2001, 2014), which won the Joseph Lepgold Book Prize and has been translated into nine different languages; The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy (with Stephen M. Walt, 2007), which made the New York Times best seller list and has been translated into twenty-four different languages; Why Leaders Lie: The Truth about Lying in International Politics (2011), which has been translated into twelve different languages; and The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities (2018) which has been translated into five different languages.

Mearsheimer has also written many articles that have appeared in academic journals like International Security, and popular magazines like Foreign Affairs and the London Review of Books. Furthermore he has written op-ed pieces for newspapers like the New York Times and the Financial Times dealing with topics like Bosnia, nuclear proliferation, US policy towards India, the failure of Arab-Israeli peace efforts, the folly of invading Iraq, the causes of the Ukrainian crisis, and the likelihood of Iran acquiring nuclear weapons. Mearsheimer holds a number of awards and honors. He received the Clark Award for Distinguished Teaching when he was a graduate student at Cornell in 1977, and he won the Quantrell Award for Distinguished Teaching at the University of Chicago in 1985. He was selected as a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar for the 1993-1994 academic year. In that capacity, he gave a series of talks at eight colleges and universities. Mearsheimer received honorary doctorates from universities in China, Greece, and Romania; and in 2003, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Barry R. Posen is Ford International Professor of Political Science at MIT and serves on the Executive Committee of Seminar XXI. He has written three books, Restraint-A New Foundation for U.S. Grand Strategy, Inadvertent Escalation: Conventional War and Nuclear Risks and The Sources of Military Doctrine. The latter won two awards: The American Political Science Association’s Woodrow Wilson Foundation Book Award, and Ohio State University’s Edward J. Furniss Jr. Book Award. He is also the author of numerous articles, including “The Case for Restraint,” “The American Interest,” (November/December 2007) and “Command of the Commons: The Military Foundation of U.S. Hegemony,” International Security, (Summer, 2003.) He has been a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow; Rockefeller Foundation International Affairs Fellow; Guest Scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies; Woodrow Wilson Center Fellow; Smithsonian Institution; Transatlantic Fellow of the German Marshall Fund of the United States, and most recently Visiting Fellow at the John Sloan Dickey Center at Dartmouth College.

Stephen Peter Rosen is the Beton Michael Kaneb Professor of National Security and Military Affairs. He was the civilian assistant to the director, Net Assessment in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Director of Political-Military Affairs on the staff of the National Security Council, and a professor in the Strategic Department at the Naval War College. He participated in the President’s Commission on Integrated Long Term Strategy, and in the Gulf War Air Power Survey sponsored by the Secretary of the Air Force. He has published articles on ballistic missile defense, the American theory of limited war, and on the strategic implications of the AIDS epidemic, and wrote the book, Winning the Next War: Innovation and the Modern Military which won the 1992 Funriss Prize for best first book on national security affairs awarded by the Merchon Center at Ohio State University. His second book, Societies and Military Power: India and its Armies, was published by Cornell University Press in 1995. His next project is on the non-rational aspects of deterrence entitled “Fear and Dominance in International Politics.”

Scott D. Sagan is the Caroline S.G. Munro Professor of Political Science, the Mimi and Peter Haas University Fellow in Undergraduate Education, and Senior Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation and the Freeman Spogli Institute at Stanford University.

He also serves as Chairman of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences’ Committee on International Security Studies. Before joining the Stanford faculty, Sagan was a lecturer in the Department of Government at Harvard University and served as special assistant to the director of the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon. Sagan has also served as a consultant to the office of the Secretary of Defense and at the Sandia National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 

Sagan is the author of Moving Targets: Nuclear Strategy and National Security (Princeton University Press, 1989); The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accidents, and Nuclear Weapons (Princeton University Press, 1993); and, with co-author Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: An Enduring Debate (W.W. Norton, 2012). He is the co-editor of Learning from a Disaster: Improving Nuclear Safety and Security after Fukushima (Stanford University Press, 2016) with Edward D. Blandford and co-editor of Insider Threats (Cornell University Press, 2017) with Matthew Bunn. Sagan was also the guest editor of a two-volume special issue of Daedalus: Ethics, Technology, and War (Fall 2016) and The Changing Rules of War (Winter 2017).

In 2018, Sagan received the Andrew Carnegie Fellowship from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. In 2017, he received the International Studies Association’s Susan Strange Award which recognizes the scholar whose “singular intellect, assertiveness, and insight most challenge conventional wisdom and intellectual and organizational complacency” in the international studies community. Sagan was also the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences William and Katherine Estes Award in 2015, for his work addressing the risks of nuclear weapons and the causes of nuclear proliferation. The award, which is granted triennially, recognizes “research in any field of cognitive or behavioral science that advances understanding of issues relating to the risk of nuclear war.” In 2013, Sagan received the International Studies Association’s International Security Studies Section Distinguished Scholar Award. He has also won four teaching awards: Stanford’s 1998-99 Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching; Stanford’s 1996 Hoagland Prize for Undergraduate Teaching; the International Studies Association’s 2008 Innovative Teaching Award; and the Monterey Institute for International Studies’ Nonproliferation Education Award in 2009.

Thomas J. Christensen is Professor of Public and International Affairs and Director of the China and the World Program at Columbia University.  He arrived in 2018 from Princeton University where he was William P. Boswell Professor of World Politics of Peace and War, Director of the Princeton-Harvard China and the World Program, and faculty director of the Masters of Public Policy Program and the Truman Scholars Program.   From 2006-2008 he served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs with responsibility for relations with China, Taiwan, and Mongolia. His research and teaching focus on China’s foreign relations, the international relations of East Asia, and international security.  His most recent book, The China Challenge:  Shaping the Choices of a Rising Power (W.W. Norton) was an editors’ choice at the New York Times Book Review, a “Book of the Week” on CNN”s Fareed Zakaria GPS, and the Arthur Ross Book Award Silver Medalist for 2016 at the Council on Foreign Relations. Christensen has also taught at Cornell University and MIT. He received his B.A. with honors in History from Haverford College, M.A. in International Relations from the University of Pennsylvania, and Ph.D. in Political Science from Columbia University. He has served on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, as co-editor of the International History and Politics series at Princeton University Press, and as a member of the Academic Advisory Committee for the Schwarzman Scholars Program. He is currently the Chair of the Editorial Board of the Nancy B. Tucker and Warren I. Cohen Book Series on the United States in Asia at Columbia University Press. Christensen is a life member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a Non-Resident Senior Scholar at the Brookings Institution. He was presented with a Distinguished Public Service Award by the United States Department of State.

Panel IV: Tributes and Tributaries (4:00 p.m.)

Lisa Anderson is Special Lecturer and James T. Shotwell Professor of International Relations Emerita at the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs.

Anderson served as President of the American University in Cairo for five years, from 2011-2016. Prior to her appointment as President, she was the University’s provost, a position she assumed in 2008.  She is Dean Emerita of the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia, where she led the school from 1997-2007. Anderson has been on the faculty of Columbia since 1986; prior to her appointment as Dean, she served as Chair of the Political Science Department and Director of Columbia’s Middle East Institute. She has also taught at Princeton and Harvard Universities.

Anderson’s scholarly research has included work on state formation in the Middle East and North Africa; on regime change and democratization in developing countries; and on social science, academic research and public policy both in the United States and around the world. Among her books are The State and Social Transformation in Tunisia and Libya, 1830-1980 (1986) and Pursuing Truth, Exercising Power: Social Science and Public Policy in the Twenty-first Century (2003); she has also published numerous scholarly articles.

Anderson is a trustee of the Aga Khan University, Tufts University and the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin. She is a member emerita of the Board of Directors of Human Rights Watch, served as elected President of the Middle East Studies Association, and as Chair of the Board of the Social Science Research Council.  A member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Council on Foreign Relations, she has received honorary degrees from Monmouth University and the American University in Paris.

Erica Borghard is a senior fellow with the New American Engagement Initiative at the Scowcroft Center for Strategy and Security in the Atlantic Council, which aims to critically examine the core assumptions of American grand strategy and propose fresh, innovative ideas for US foreign policy. Her own work addresses US grand strategy, with a particular focus on the strategic implications of cyberspace and emerging technologies; public-private partnerships and resilience; and covert action and proxy warfare.

Borghard serves as a senior director on the US Cyberspace Solarium Commission, a Congressional commission established to develop a comprehensive national strategy to defend the United States in cyberspace. Previously, she was an Assistant Professor in the Army Cyber Institute at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Prior to that, Borghard was a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow, with placement at JPMorgan Chase and US Cyber Command. She also served as an Assistant Professor and Executive Director of the Rupert H. Johnson Grand Strategy Program in the Department of Social Sciences at West Point.

Borghard has published on topics ranging from grand strategy, cyber strategy and policy, coercion and military intervention, and international crisis bargaining. Her academic work has appeared in numerous journals, including American Political Science Review, Security Studies, Strategic Studies Quarterly, Orbis, The Cyber Defense Review, and Survival. Erica has also published opinion pieces in outlets such as WIRED, The Washington Post, Lawfare, War on the Rocks, the Council on Foreign Relations, and The National Interest. Borghard’s co-edited book volume, US National Security Reform: Reassessing the National Security Act of 1947, explores the evolution of American grand strategy and offers policy recommendations for the contemporary environment. Her co-authored book, Escalation Dynamics in Cyberspace, forthcoming in 2021 with the Bridging the Gap series at Oxford University Press, presents a novel theory of escalation and signaling in cyberspace. She is also currently editing a book volume on the research behind the Cyberspace Solarium Commission’s work, as well as writing her forthcoming book on proxy warfare.

Borghard received her Ph.D. in Political Science from Columbia University. She is a term member at the Council on Foreign Relations and an adjunct research fellow at the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University. Borghard also serves on the Board of Directors of the Cyber Conflict Studies Association, and is a member of the New York Cyber Task Force.

Stuart Gottlieb has been teaching American foreign policy, counterterrorism, and international security for more than 15 years at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA), where he is also a member of the Saltzman Institute of War & Peace Studies. In addition, he serves as faculty director for SIPA’s summer certificate program in international relations. His courses have won multiple teaching awards.

Prior to joining SIPA in 2003, Gottlieb worked for five years in the United States Senate, first as senior foreign policy adviser to Senator Charles E. Schumer of New York, and subsequently as policy adviser and chief speechwriter for Senator Christopher J. Dodd of Connecticut. He has also worked on several political campaigns, including Vice President Al Gore’s presidential campaign in 2000, and New York City mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani’s reelection campaign in 1997 and presidential campaign in 2008.

Gottlieb is a former founding partner of Prides Crossing Executive Communication, a speechwriting and communications consulting firm based in New York, whose client list includes many well-known public officials and Fortune 500 companies. He continues to consult independently with political and business leaders, and regularly publishes op-eds and other policy-related articles. A second edition of his book Debating Terrorism & Counterterrorism: Conflicting Perspectives on Causes, Contexts, and Responses was published in 2014 (CQ Press), and he is currently working on a book titled Experimental Power: The Rise and Role of America in World Affairs (Yale University Press).

Gottlieb holds a B.A. with honors in political science and journalism from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and a Ph.D. in international relations from Columbia University.

Captain Michael O’Hara is Chair, War Gaming Department and Permanent Military Professor at the U.S. Naval War College. He is a career naval officer with worldwide operational and leadership experience in naval aviation and naval intelligence. His work focuses on strategy, decision making, and emerging technologies.

Since 2014, he has taught in the Department of Strategy and Policy and is the proud recipient of the Vice Admiral Thomas R. Weschler Award for Inspirational Teaching. He served previously as the Associate Dean of the Center for Naval Warfare Studies and founding Director of the Future Warfighting Symposium. He has held a National Security Fellowship at Brown University’s Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs. His service at sea includes deployments aboard three aircraft carriers, flying the S-3B Viking and leading air wing intelligence operations in support of combat in Afghanistan and maritime security operations in the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean regions. Ashore, he served with Combined Forces Command (J2) in Kabul, Afghanistan and at the Office of Naval Intelligence, National Maritime Intelligence Center, and the Naval Academy Preparatory School.

He holds an M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. in Political Science from Columbia University and an M.A. in English Literature from the University of Rhode Island. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and Naval War College (M.A. with Highest Distinction).

Stephen M. Walt is the Robert and Renée Belfer Professor of International Affairs at the Kennedy School at Harvard University. He previously taught at Princeton University and the University of Chicago, where he served as Master of the Social Science Collegiate Division and Deputy Dean of Social Sciences. He has been a Resident Associate of the Carnegie Endowment for Peace and a Guest Scholar at the Brookings Institution, and he has also served as a consultant for the Institute of Defense Analyses, the Center for Naval Analyses, and the National Defense University. He presently serves on the editorial boards of Foreign PolicySecurity StudiesInternational Relations, and Journal of Cold War Studies, and he also serves as Co-Editor of the Cornell Studies in Security Affairs, published by Cornell University Press. Additionally, he was elected as a Fellow in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in May 2005.

His book The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2007, co-authored with John J. Mearsheimer) was a New York Times best seller and has been translated into more than twenty foreign languages.   His most recent book is The Hell of Good Intentions: America’s Foreign Policy Elite and the Decline of U.S. Primacy (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2018).

V. Page Fortna is the Harold Brown Professor of US Foreign and Security Policy in the Political Science Department. Her research focuses on terrorism, the durability of peace in the aftermath of both civil and interstate wars, and war termination. She is the author of two books: Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents Choices after Civil War (Princeton University Press, 2008) and Peace Time: Cease-Fire Agreements and the Durability of Peace (Princeton University Press, 2004).  Fortna has published articles in journals such as International Organization, World Politics, International Studies Quarterly, and International Studies Review. She is currently working on a project on terrorism in civil wars. Her research combines quantitative and qualitative methods, draws on diverse theoretical approaches, and focuses on policy-relevant questions.

Fortna received the Karl Deutsch Award from the International Studies Association in 2010. She has held fellowships at the Olin Institute at Harvard, the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Hoover Institution.

Fortna teaches courses on international politics, war termination and the durability of peace, terrorism, cooperation and security, and research methods. Her article “Do Terrorists Win? Rebels’ Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes” (International Organization, Summer 2015) has been highlighted in The Atlantic;Slate; and Die Zeit.

Fortna holds a B.A. from Wesleyan University and a Ph.D. in political science from Harvard University.

Jack Snyder is the Robert and Renée Belfer Professor of International Relations in the political science department and the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University.

His books include Human Rights for Pragmatists: Social Power in Modern Times (Princeton University Press, forthcoming); Human Rights Futures (co-edited with Stephen Hopgood and Leslie Vinjamuri, Cambridge University Press, 2017); Ranking the World: Grading States as a Tool of Global Governance (co-editor with Alexander Cooley; Cambridge University Press, 2015); Power and Progress: International Politics in Transition (Routledge, 2012); Religion and International Relations Theory (Columbia, 2011); Electing to Fight: Why Emerging Democracies Go to War (MIT Press, 2005), co-authored with Edward D. Mansfield; From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict (Norton 2000); Myths of Empire: Domestic Politics and International Ambition (Cornell, 1991); and Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention, co-editor with Barbara Walter (Columbia, 1999).

Snyder’s articles on such topics as democratization and war, imperial overstretch, war crimes tribunals versus amnesties as strategies for preventing atrocities, and international relations theory after September 11 have appeared in The American Political Science Review, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, International Organization, International Security, and World Politics. A Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Snyder received a B.A. in government from Harvard University in 1973, a Certificate from Columbia’s Russian Institute in 1978, and a Ph.D. in political science from Columbia in 1981.