The Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies was founded in 1951 under the sponsorship of Dwight D. Eisenhower, during his tenure as president of Columbia University, in an effort to promote an understanding of “the disastrous consequences of war upon man’s spiritual, intellectual, and material progress.” Originally named the Institute of War and Peace Studies (IWPS), in March, 2003, the institute was renamed the Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies (SIWPS), in honor of the late Arnold A. Saltzman. Under its first director, William T.R. Fox, the Institute  became one of the foremost research centers on international relations in the country. From the beginning, the Institute has interpreted its role broadly. Over the years researchers have probed the political, military, historical, legal, economic, moral, psychological and philosophical dimensions of international relations. Although the Institute does not take an official position on any public policy issues, individual members of SIWPS contribute to the general discourse on such topics by authoring articles in journals such as Foreign Affairs, discussing current issues with officials and journalists, serving as consultants to government departments and agencies, and testifying before Congressional committees. The Institute itself has no formal teaching program; rather, its members conduct a wide variety of instructional activities through the Department of Political Science and the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) at Columbia University. Members of the Institute offer courses on American foreign policy, national security, international politics, political economy, environmental policy, and international organizations.