Jack S. Levy is a Board of Governors’ Professor of Political Science at Rutgers University, and a Senior Research Scholar at the Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University.  His research focuses primarily on the causes of war, foreign policy decision-making, and qualitative methodology.

Levy is past president of the International Studies Association and of the Peace Science Society.  He has held tenured positions at the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Minnesota, and visiting or adjunct positions at Tulane University, Stanford University, Harvard University, Yale University, Columbia University, and New York University.  Levy received the American Political Science Association’s Helen Dwight Reid Award for the best dissertation in International Relations as well as the Distinguished Scholar Award from the Foreign Policy Analysis Section of the International Studies Association.

Levy received a B.S. from Harvey Mudd College and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Books

The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, 2d ed., eds. Leonie Huddy, Jack S. Levy, and David O. Sears (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013).
Jack S. Levy and William R. Thompson, The Arc of War: Origins, Escalation, and Transformation (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2011).
Jack S. Levy and William R. Thompson, Causes of War (Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).
Explaining War and Peace: Case Studies and Necessary Condition Counterfactuals, eds. Gary Goertz and Jack S. Levy (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2007).
Paul W. Schroeder, Systems, Stability, and Statecraft: Essays on the International History of Modern Europe, eds. Robert Jervis, Jack Levy, and David Wetzel (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
Jack S. Levy, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495-1975 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1983).

Principal Articles

Jack S. Levy and William Mulligan, “Rethinking Power Politics in an Interdependent World,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 49, no. 4 (Spring 2019).
Andrew Q. Greve and Jack S. Levy, “Power Transitions, Status Dissatisfaction, and War: The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895,” Security Studies 27, no. 1 (January 2018).
Jack S. Levy and William Mulligan, “Shifting Power, Preventive Logic, and the Response of the Target: Germany, Russia, and the First World War,” Journal of Strategic Studies 40, no. 5 (2017).
Jack S. Levy, “Clausewitz and People’s War,” Journal of Strategic Studies 40, no. 3 (2017).
Jack S. Levy and Phillip Streich, “Information, Commitment, and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905,” Foreign Policy Analysis 12, no. 4 (October 2016).
Jack S. Levy, Michael K. McKoy, Paul Poast, and Geoffrey P.R. Wallace, “Backing Out or Backing In? Commitment and Consistency in Audience Costs Theory,” American Journal of Political Science 59, no. 4 (October 2015).
Jack S. Levy, “Counterfactuals, Causal Inference, and Historical Analysis,” Security Studies 24, no. 3 (September 2015).
Jack S. Levy and Jack Snyder, “Everyone’s favored Year for War – or Not?” International Security 39, no. 4 (Spring 2015).
Jack S. Levy, Patrick Shea, and Terence K. Teo, “Opposition Politics and International Crises: A Formal Model,” International Studies Quarterly 58, no. 4 (December 2014).
Halvard Buhaug, Jack Levy and Henrik Urdal, “50 Years of Peace Research: An Introduction to the Journal of Peace Research Anniversary Special Issue,” Journal of Peace Research 51, no. 2 (March 2014).
Jack S. Levy, “Has Violence Declined in World Politics? A Discussion of Joshua S. Goldstein’s Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide,” Perspectives on Politics 11, no. 2 (June 2013).
Jack S. Levy, “Coercive Threats, Audience Costs, and Case Studies,” Security Studies 21, no. 3 (July 2012).
David W. Blagden, Jack S. Levy, and William R. Thompson, “Sea Powers, Continental Powers, and Balancing Theory,” International Security 36, no. 2 (Fall 2011).
Jack S. Levy and Patricia T. Young, “Domestic Politics and the Escalation of Commercial Rivalry: Explaining the War of Jenkins’ Ear, 1739-48,” European Journal of International Relations 17, no. 2 (June 2011).
Jack S. Levy, “The Initiation and Spread of the First World War: Interdependent Decisions,” Foreign Policy Analysis 7, no. 2 (April 2011).
Jack S. Levy, “Preventive War: Concept and Propositions,” International Interactions 37, no. 1 (January 2011).
Jack S. Levy and William R. Thompson, “Balancing on Land and at Sea: Do States Ally Against the Leading Global Power?” International Security 35, no. 1 (Summer 2010).
Uri Bar-Joseph and Jack S. Levy, “Conscious Action and Intelligence Failure,” Political Science Quarterly 124, no. 3 (Fall 2009).
Jack S. Levy and Norrin M. Ripsman, “Debating British Decisionmaking toward Nazi Germany in the 1930s,” International Security 34, no. 1 (Summer 2009).
Jack S. Levy and Norrin M. Ripsman, “Wishful Thinking or Buying Time? The Logic of British Appeasement in the 1930s,” International Security 33, no. 2 (Fall 2008).
Jack S. Levy, “Deterrence and Coercive Diplomacy: The Contributions of Alexander George,” Political Psychology 29, no. 4 (August 2008).
Jack S. Levy, “Preventive War and Democratic Politics,” International Studies Quarterly 52, no. 1 (March 2008).
Jack S. Levy, “Case Studies: Types, Designs, and Logics of Inference,” Conflict Management and Peace Science 25, no. 1 (February 2008).
Jack S. Levy and Philip Streich, “Time Horizons, Discounting, and Intertemporal Choice,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51, no. 2 (April 2007).
Jack S. Levy, “Qualitative Methods and Cross-Method Dialogue in Political Science,” Comparative Political Studies 40, no. 2 (February 2007).
Jack S. Levy and Norrin M. Ripsman, “The Preventive War that Never Happened: Britain, France, and the Rise of Germany in the 1930s,” Security Studies 16, no. 1 (January-March 2007).
Jack S. Levy, “Well Worth the Wait,” Qualitative Methods 4 (Spring 2006).
Jack S. Levy and William R. Thompson, “Hegemonic Threats and Great Power Balancing in Europe, 1495-2000,” Security Studies 14, no. 1 (January-March 2005).
Jack S. Levy and William F. Mabe Jr., “Politically Motivated Opposition to War,” International Studies Review 6, no. 4 (December 2004).
Katherine Barbieri and Jack S. Levy, “Trading with the Enemy during Wartime,” Security Studies 13, no. 3 (Spring 2004).
Raymond Dacey and Jack S. Levy, “Aspects of Contemporary Decision Analysis,” Synthese 135, no. 2 (May 2003).
Jack S. Levy, “Applications of Prospect Theory to Political Science,” Synthese 135, no. 2 (May 2003).
Jack S. Levy, “Daniel Kahneman: Judgment, Decision, and Rationality,” PS: Political Science and Politics 35, no. 2 (June 2002).
Jack S. Levy with Joseph R. Gochal, “Democracy and Preventive War: Israel and the 1956 Sinai Campaign,” Security Studies 11, no. 2 (Winter 2001-2002).
Katherine Barbieri and Jack S. Levy, “Does War Impede Trade? A Response to Anderton and Carter,” Journal of Peace Research 38, no. 5 (September 2001).
Jonathan M. DiCicco and Jack S. Levy, “Power Shifts and Problem Shifts: The Evolution of the Power Transition Research Program,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 43, no. 6 (December 1999).
Katherine Barbieri and Jack S. Levy, “Sleeping With the Enemy: The Impact of War on Trade,” Journal of Peace Research 36, no. 4 (July 1999).
Jack S. Levy, “Misperception and the Use of Force: A Commentary on Ralph White’s ‘American Acts of Force,'” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 4, no. 2 (July 1998).
Jack S. Levy, “The Causes of War and the Conditions of Peace,” Annual Review of Political Science 1 (June 1998).
Richard R. Lau and Jack S. Levy, “Contributions of Behavioral Decision Theory to Research in Political Science,” Applied Psychology: An International Review 47, no. 1 (January 1998).
Jack S. Levy, “Too Important to Leave to the Other: History and Political Science in the Study of International Relations,” International Security 22, no. 1 (Summer 1997).
Jack S. Levy, “Prospect Theory, Rational Choice, and International Relations,” International Studies Quarterly 41, no. 1 (March 1997).
Jack S. Levy, “Loss Aversion, Framing, and Bargaining: The Implications of Prospect Theory for International Conflict,” International Political Science Review 17, no. 2 (April 1996).
Jack S. Levy, “The Theoretical Foundations of Paul W. Schroeder’s International System,” International History Review 16, no. 4 (November 1994).
Jack S. Levy, “The Democratic Peace Hypothesis: From Description to Explanation,” Mershon International Studies Review 38, no. 2 (October 1994).
Jack S. Levy, “Learning and Foreign Policy: Sweeping a Conceptual Minefield,” International Organization 48, no. 2 (Spring 1994).
Michael N. Barnett and Jack S. Levy, “Alliance Formation, Domestic Political Economy, and Third World Security,” Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 14, no. 4 (October 1992).
Jack S. Levy, “An Introduction to Prospect Theory,” Political Psychology 13, no. 2 (June 1992).
Jack S. Levy, “Prospect Theory and International Relations: Theoretical Applications and Analytical Problems,” Political Psychology 13, no. 2 (June 1992).
Thomas J. Christensen, Jack S. Levy, and Marc Trachtenberg, “Mobilization and Inadvertence in the July Crisis,” International Security 16, no. 1 (Summer 1991).
Michael N. Barnett and Jack S. Levy, “Domestic Sources of Alliances and Alignments: The Case of Egypt, 1962-1973,” International Organization 45, no. 3 (Summer 1991).
Jack S. Levy, “Big Wars, Little Wars, and Theory Construction,” International Interactions 16, no. 3 (1990).
Jack S. Levy, “Preferences, Constraints, and Choices in July 1914,” International Security 15, no. 3 (Winter 1990-1991).
Jack S. Levy, “Analytic Problems in the Identification of Wars,” International Interactions 14, no. 2 (1988).
Jack S. Levy, “When Do Deterrent Threats Work?” British Journal of Political Science 18, no. 4 (October 1988).
Jack S. Levy, “Domestic Politics and War,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (Spring 1988).
Jack S. Levy, “Declining Power and the Preventive Motivation for War,” World Politics 40, no. 1 (October 1987).
Jack S. Levy, “Organizational Routines and the Causes of War,” International Studies Quarterly 30, no. 2 (June 1986).
Jack S. Levy and T. Clifton Morgan, “The War-Weariness Hypothesis: An Empirical Test,” American Journal of Political Science 30, no. 1 (February 1986).
Jack S. Levy, “Theories of General War,” World Politics 37, no. 3 (April 1985).
Jack S. Levy, “Size and Stability in the Modern Great Power System,” International Interactions 11 (1984).
Jack S. Levy and T. Clifton Morgan, “The Frequency and Seriousness of War: An Inverse Relationship?” Journal of Conflict Resolution 28, no. 4 (December 1984).
Jack S. Levy, “The Offensive/Defensive Balance of Military Technology: A Theoretical and Historical Analysis,” International Studies Quarterly 28, no. 2 (June 1984).
Jack S. Levy, “Misperception and the Causes of War: Theoretical Linkages and Analytical Problems,” World Politics 36, no. 1 (October 1983).
Jack S. Levy, “The Contagion of Great Power War Behavior, 1495-1975,” American Journal of Political Science 26, no. 3 (August 1982).
Jack S. Levy, “Historical Trends in Great Power War, 1495-1975,” International Studies Quarterly 26, no. 2 (June 1982).
Jack S. Levy, “Alliance Formation and War Behavior: An Analysis of the Great Powers, 1495-1975,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 25, no. 4 (December 1981).

Book Chapters

Jack S. Levy, “Political Decision-Making,” in Christopher J. Hewer and Evanthia Lyons, eds., Political Psychology (London: BPS Wiley, 2018).
Jack S. Levy, “The Sources of Preventive Logic in German Decision-making in 1914,” in Jack Levy and John Vasquez, eds., The Outbreak of the First World War: Structure, Politics, and Decision-Making (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
Jack S. Levy, “International War,” in Masamichi Sasaki, Jack A. Goldstone, Ekkart Zimmermann, and Stephen K. Sanderson, eds., Concise Encyclopedia of Comparative Sociology (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2014).
Jack S. Levy and John A. Vasquez, “Introduction: Historians, Political Scientists, and the Causes of the First World War,” in Jack S. Levy and John A. Vasquez, eds., The Outbreak of the First World War: Structure, Politics, and Decision-Making (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
Jack S. Levy, “Interstate War and Peace,” in Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth A. Simmons, eds., Handbook of International Relations, 2d ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2013).
Leonie Huddy, Jack S. Levy, and David O. Sears, “Introduction: Theoretical Foundations of Political Psychology,” in Leonie Huddy, David O. Sears, and Jack S. Levy, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, 2d ed. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013).
Jack S. Levy, “Psychology and Foreign Policy Decision-Making,” in Leonie Huddy, David O. Sears, and Jack S. Levy, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, 2d ed. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013).
Jack S. Levy, “The ‘Paths-to-War’ Concept,” in John A. Vasquez, ed., What Do We Know about War (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012).
Jack S. Levy and Norrin M. Ripsman, “British Grand Strategy and the Rise of Germany, 1933-1936,” in Jeffrey W. Taliaferro, Norrin M. Ripsman, and Steven E. Lobell, eds., The Challenge of Grand Strategy: The Great Powers and the Broken Balance between the World Wars (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
Jack S. Levy, “Theories and Causes of War,” in Christopher Coyne and Rachel L. Mathers, eds., The Handbook on the Political Economy of War (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2011).
Jack S. Levy, “Preface,” in Thomas J. Volgy, Renato Corbetta, Ryan G. Baird, and Keith A. Grant, eds., Major Powers and the Quest for Status in International Politics: Global and Regional Perspectives (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2011).
Jack S. Levy, “Case Studies and Conflict Resolution,” in Jacob Bercovitch, Victor Kremenyuk, and I. William Zartman, eds., The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009).
Jack S. Levy, “Power Transition Theory and the Rise of China,” in Robert S. Ross and Zhu Feng, eds., China’s Ascent: Power, Security, and the Future of International Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008).
Jack S. Levy, “Counterfactuals and Case Studies,” in Janet Box-Steffensmeier, Henry Brady, and David Collier, eds., Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Gary Goertz and Jack S. Levy, “Causal Explanation, Necessary Conditions, and Case Studies,” in Gary Goertz and Jack S. Levy, eds., Explaining War and Peace: Case Studies and Necessary Condition Counterfactuals (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2007).
Jack S. Levy, “Theory, Evidence, and Politics in the Evolution of Research Programs,” in Richard Ned Lebow and Mark Lichbach, eds., Theory and Evidence in Comparative Politics and International Relations (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
Jack S. Levy, “Preventive War and the Bush Doctrine: Theoretical Logic and Historical Roots,” in Stanley A. Renshon and Peter Suedfeld, eds., Understanding The Bush Doctrine: Psychology and Strategy in an Age of Terrorism (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2007).
Jack S. Levy, “International Sources of Interstate and Intrastate War,” in Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, eds., Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict Management in a Divided World (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2007).
Jack S. Levy, “Policy and Politics in Security Studies,” in Edward D. Mansfield and Richard Sisson, eds., The Evolution of Political Knowledge: Democracy, Autonomy, and Conflict in Comparative and International Politics (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2004).
Jack S. Levy, “What Do Great Powers Balance Against and When?” in T.V. Paul, James Wirtz, and Michel Fortmann, eds., Balance of Power Revisited: Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004).
Joseph R. Gochal and Jack S. Levy, “Crisis Mismanagement or Conflict of Interests? A Case Study of the Crimean War,” in Zeev Maoz et al., eds,. Multiple Paths to Knowledge in International Relations: Methodology in the Study of Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 2004).
Jack S. Levy and Jonathan M. DiCicco, “The Power Transition Research Program: A Lakatosian Analysis,” in Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman, eds., Progress in International Relations Theory: Appraising the Field (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003).
Jack S. Levy, “Political Psychology and Foreign Policy,” in David O. Sears, Leonie Huddy, and Robert Jervis, eds., Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003).
Jack S. Levy, “Economic Interdependence, Opportunity Costs, and Peace,” in Edward D. Mansfield and Brian M. Pollins, eds., Economic Interdependence and International Conflict: New Perspectives on an Enduring Debate (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003).
Jack S. Levy, “Necessary Conditions in Case Studies: Preferences, Constraints, and Choices in July 1914,” in Gary Goertz and Harvey Starr, eds., Necessary Conditions: Theory, Methodology, and Applications (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).
Katherine Barbieri and Jack S. Levy, “The Trade Disruption Hypothesis and the Liberal Economic Theory of Peace,” in Gerald Schneider, Katherine Barbieri, and Nils Petter Gleditsch, eds., Globalisation and Armed Conflict (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).
Jack S. Levy, “Balances and Balancing: Concepts, Propositions, and Research Design,” in John A. Vasquez and Colin Elman, eds., Realism and the Balancing of Power: A New Debate (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003).
Jack S. Levy, “War and Peace,” in Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth A. Simmons, eds., Handbook of International Relations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002).
Jack S. Levy, “Qualitative Methods in International Relations,” in Michael Brecher and Frank P. Harvey, eds., Millennial Reflections on International Studies (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002).
Jack S. Levy, “Explaining Events and Testing Theories: History, Political Science, and the Analysis of International Relations,” in Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman, eds., Bridges and Boundaries: Historians, Political Scientists, and the Study of International Relations (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001).
Jack S. Levy, “Theories of Interstate and Intrastate War: A Levels-of-Analysis Approach,” in Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, eds., Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2001).
Ronald R. Krebs and Jack S. Levy, “Demographic Change and the Sources of International Conflict,” in Myron Weiner and Sharon Stanton Russell, eds., Demography and National Security (New York: Berghahn Books, 2001).
Martin S. Edwards, Jack S. Levy, and Thomas C. Walker, “Continuity and Change in the Evolution of War,” in Zeev Maoz and Azar Gat, eds., War in a Changing World (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2001).
Jack S. Levy, “Reflections on the Scientific Study of War,” in John A. Vasquez, ed., What Do We Know about War?(Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000).
Jack S. Levy, “The Implications of Framing and Loss Aversion for International Conflict,” in Manus I. Midlarsky, ed., Handbook of War Studies II (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000).
Jack S. Levy, “The Rise and Decline of the Anglo-Dutch Rivalry, 1609-1689,” in William R. Thompson, ed., Great Power Rivalries (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1999).
Salvatore Ali and Jack S. Levy, “From Commercial Competition to Strategic Rivalry to War: The Evolution of the Anglo-Dutch Rivalry, 1609-1652,” in Paul F. Diehl, ed., The Dynamics of Enduring Rivalries (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1998).
Jack S. Levy, “Prospect Theory and the Cognitive-Rational Debate,” in Nehemia Geva and Alex Mintz, eds., Decisionmaking on War and Peace: The Cognitive-Rational Debate (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1997).
Jack S. Levy, “The Evolution of Militarized Interstate Disputes,” in Stuart A. Bremer and Thomas R. Cusack, eds., The Process of War: Advancing the Scientific Study of War (Abingdon, UK: Gordon and Breach, 1996).
Jack S. Levy, “Learning from Experience in U.S. and Soviet Foreign Policy,” in Manus I. Midlarsky, John A. Vasquez, and Peter Gladkov, eds., From Rivalry to Cooperation: Soviet and American Perspectives on the Post-Cold War Era (New York: Harper Collins, 1994).
Jack S. Levy and Lily I. Vakili, “Diversionary Action by Authoritarian Regimes: Argentina in the Falklands/Malvinas Case,” in Manus I. Midlarsky, ed., The Internationalization of Communal Strife (Abingdon, UK: Routlege, 1992).
Jack S. Levy, “Long Cycles, Hegemonic Transitions, and the Long Peace,” in Charles W. Kegley Jr., ed., The Long Postwar Peace (New York: Harper Collins, 1991).
Jack S. Levy, “The Role of Crisis Mismanagement in the Origins of World War I,” in Alexander L. George, ed., Avoiding War: Problems of Crisis Management (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991).
Jack S. Levy and T. Clifton Morgan, “Base Stealers versus Power Hitters: A Nation-State Level Analysis of the Frequency and Seriousness of War,” in Charles S. Gochman and Alan Ned Sabrosky, eds., Prisoners of War? (New York: Lexington Books, 1990).
Jack S. Levy, “The Diversionary Theory of War: A Critique,” in Manus I. Midlarsky, ed., Handbook of War Studies (Crows Nest, Australia: Unwin-Hyman, 1989).
Jack S. Levy, “War and Perception,” in Robert O. Matthews, Arthur G. Rubinoff, and Janice Gross Stein, eds., International Conflict and Crisis Management, 2d ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989).
Jack S. Levy, “The Causes of War: A Review of Theories and Evidence,” in Philip E. Tetlock, Jo L. Husbands, Robert Jervis, Paul C. Stern, and Charles Tilly, eds., Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, vol. I (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Jack S. Levy, “Quantitative Studies of Deterrence Success and Failure,” in Paul C. Stern, Robert Axelrod, Robert Jervis, and Roy Radner, eds., Perspectives on Deterrence (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Jack S. Levy and T. Clifton Morgan, “The Structure of the International System and the Frequency and Seriousness of War,” in Margaret P. Karns, ed., Persistent Patterns and Emergent Structures in a Waning Century (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1986).
Michael Froelich and Jack S. Levy, “The Causes of the Iran-Iraq War,” in James Brown and William P. Snyder, eds., The Regionalization of War (Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Books, 1985).
Jack S. Levy, “The Polarity of the System and International Stability: An Empirical Analysis,” in Alan Ned Sabrosky, ed., Polarity and War: The Changing Structure of International Conflict (New York: Westview, 1985).
Jack S. Levy, “World System Analysis: A Great Power Framework,” in William R. Thompson, ed., Contending Approaches to World System Analysis (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1983).