In September, a number of Columbia University Ph.D. candidates affiliated with the Arnold A. Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies presented papers on a range of topics related to international relations and foreign policy. Michael Beckley presented a paper entitled “Economic Development and Military Effectiveness.” Vsevolod Gunitskiy presented two papers: “Explaining Waves of Change: Global Shocks and Domestic Reforms in the Twentieth Century” and “Complex Adaptive Systems and International Relations Theory: A New Path or a Cul-de-Sac?” Suzanne Katzenstein also presented two papers: “Understanding the Emergence of Private–Standing Provisions in BITs: an Analysis of the Stages that Precede Diffusion” and “No Longer Safe to Be King: An Analysis of the Erosion of Foreign Sovereign Immunity for War Crimes.”

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