Stephen Biddle is Professor of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, and Adjunct Senior Fellow for Defense Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations. He has served on the Defense Department’s Defense Policy Board, on General David Petraeus’ Joint Strategic Assessment Team in Baghdad in 2007, as a Senior Advisor to the Central Command Assessment Team in Washington in 2008-9, as a member of General Stanley McChrystal’s Initial Strategic Assessment Team in Kabul in 2009, and on a variety of other government advisory panels and analytical teams. Biddle lectures regularly at the U.S. Army War College and other military schools, and has presented testimony before congressional committees on issues relating to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria; force planning; conventional net assessment; and European arms control.

Biddle’s book Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle (Princeton University Press, 2004) won four prizes, including the Council on Foreign Relations Arthur Ross Award Silver Medal for 2005, and the 2005 Huntington Prize from the Harvard University Olin Institute for Strategic Studies. His other publications include articles in Foreign Affairs, International Security, Survival, The Journal of Politics, Security Studies, The Journal of Strategic Studies, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, International Studies Quarterly, The New Republic, The American Interest, The National Interest, Orbis, The Washington Quarterly, Contemporary Security Policy, Defense Analysis, Joint Force Quarterly, and Military Operations Research; shorter pieces on military topics in The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, and other news outlets; various chapters in edited volumes; and 31 NATO and U.S. government sponsored reports and monographs.

He has held the Elihu Root chair in military studies at the U.S. Army War College, the Roger Hertog Senior Fellowship at the Council on Foreign Relations, and other teaching and research positions at George Washington University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), and Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA). Biddle co-directs the Columbia University Summer Workshop on the Analysis of Military Operations and Strategy (SWAMOS), and his research has won Barchi, Rist, and Impact Prizes from the Military Operations Research Society. He was awarded the U.S. Army Superior Civilian Service Medal in 2003 and again in 2006, and was presented with the US Army Commander’s Award for Public Service in Baghdad in 2007. He holds AB (1981), MPP (1985), and Ph.D. (Public Policy, 1992) degrees, all from Harvard University.

Books

Stephen D. Biddle, Nonstate Warfare: The Military Methods of Guerillas, Warlords, and Militias (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2021)
Stephen D. Biddle, Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004).
Stephen D. Biddle and Peter D. Feaver, Battlefield Nuclear Weapons: Issues and Options (Lanham: University Press of America, 1989).

Principal Articles

Ryan Baker, Stephen D. Biddle, and Julia MacDonald, “Small Footprint, Small Payoff: The Military Utility of Security Force Assistance,” Journal of Strategic Studies 41, no. 1 (Winter 2018).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Afghanistan: Peace Prospects at the Abyss,” The American Interest, 14, no. 2 (November/December 2018).
Stephen D. Biddle, “The Determinants of Nonstate Military Methods,” Pacific Review 31, No. 6 (2018).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Building Security Forces and Stabilizing Nations: The Problem of Agency,” Daedalus 146, no. 4 (Fall 2017).
Stephen D. Biddle and Ivan Oelrich, “Correspondence: Future Warfare in the Western Pacific,” International Security 41, no. 4 (2017).
Stephen D. Biddle and Ivan Oelrich, “Future Warfare in the Western Pacific: Chinese Antiaccess/Area Denial, U.S. AirSea Battle, and Command of the Commons in East Asia,” International Security 41, no. 1 (Summer 2016).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Afghanistan’s Legacy: Emerging Lessons of an Ongoing War,” The Washington Quarterly 37, no. 2 (Summer 2014).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Ending the War in Afghanistan: How to Avoid Failure on the Installment Plan,” Foreign Affairs 92, no. 5 (September/October 2013).
Stephen D. Biddle with Jeffrey Friedman and Jacob Shapiro, “Correspondence: Assessing the Synergy Thesis in Iraq,” International Security 37, no. 4 (Spring 2013).
Stephen D. Biddle, Jeffrey Friedman, and Stephen Long, “Civil War Intervention and the Problem of Iraq,” International Studies Quarterly 56, no. 1 (March 2012).
Stephen D. Biddle, Jeffrey Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro, “Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?,” International Security 37, no. 1 (2012); Reprinted in Celeste Ward Gventer, David Martin Jones and M.L.R. Smith, eds., The New Counterinsurgency Era in Critical Perspective (New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2014).
Stephen D. Biddle, “The Difference Two Years Make,” The American Interest 7, no. 1 (September/October 2011).
Stephen D. Biddle, Fotini Christia, and J. Alex Thier, “Defining Success in Afghanistan,” Foreign Affairs 89, no. 4 (July/August 2010).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Is There a Middle Way? The Problem with Half Measures in Afghanistan,” The New Republic 240, no. 20 (November 2009): 28.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Is it Worth It? The Difficult Case for War in Afghanistan,” The American Interest 4, no. 6 (July/August 2009).
Stephen D. Biddle, Michael O’Hanlon, and Kenneth Pollack, “How to Leave a Stable Iraq: Building on Progress,” Foreign Affairs 87, no. 5 (September/October 2008).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Patient Stabilized?,” The National Interest 94 (March/April 2008).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Review Symposium: The New US Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual as Political Science and Political Praxis,” Perspectives on Politics 6, no. 2 (2008).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Military Strategy: An Introduction,” PS: Political Science and Politics 40, no. 3 (July 2007).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Speed Kills: Reevaluating the Role of Speed, Precision, and Situation Awareness in the Fall of Saddam,” Journal of Strategic Studies 30, no. 1 (February 2007).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Defining Victory and Defeat in Iraq,” The National Interest 86 (November/December 2006).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Biddle Replies,” Foreign AffairsWhat to Do in Iraq: A Roundtable 85, no. 4 (July/August 2006).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon: The Perils of Refighting Vietnam in Iraq,” Foreign Affairs 85, no. 2 (March/April 2006).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Allies, Air Power, and Modern Warfare,” International Security 30, no. 3 (Winter 2005/2006).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Military Power: A Reply,” Journal of Strategic Studies 28, no. 3 (June 2005).
Stephen D. Biddle and Stephen Long, “Democracy and Military Effectiveness: A Deeper Look,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48, no. 4 (August 2004).
Stephen D. Biddle, Review of Emily Goldman and Leslie Eliason, eds., The Diffusion of Military Technology and Ideas, Perspectives on Politics 3, no. 3 (2004).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Afghanistan and the Future of Warfare,” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 2 (March/April 2003); Reprinted in Paul J. Bolt, Damon V. Coletta, and Collins G. Shackelford, Jr., eds., American Defense Policy (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).
Stephen D. Biddle, “The New Way of War? Debating the Kosovo Model,” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 3 (2002).
Stephen D. Biddle, Michael Fischerkeller, and Wade Hinkle, “The Interaction of Skill and Technology in Combat,” Military Operations Research 7, no. 1 (2002).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Rebuilding the Foundations of Offense-Defense Theory,” Journal of Politics 63, no. 3 (August 2001).
Stephen D. Biddle and JCISS Study Group, “The Risks of a Networked Military,” Orbis 44, no. 1 (Winter 2000).
Stephen D. Biddle, Michael Fischerkeller, and Wade Hinkle, “Skill and Technology in Modern Warfare,” Joint Force Quarterly 22 (Summer 1999).
Stephen D. Biddle, et al., “Controlling Antipersonnel Landmines,” Contemporary Security Policy 19, no. 3 (December 1998).
Stephen D. Biddle, “The Past as Prologue: Assessing Theories of Future Warfare,” Security Studies 8, no. 1 (Fall 1998); Reprinted in H.W. Brands, ed., The Use of Force After the Cold War (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000).
Stephen D. Biddle, “The Gulf Debate Redux: Why Skill and Technology are the Right Answer,” International Security 22, no. 2 (Fall 1997).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Victory Misunderstood: What the Gulf War Tells Us About the Future of Conflict,” International Security 21, no. 2 (Fall 1996).
Stephen D. Biddle and Robert Zirkle, “Technology, Civil-Military Relations, and Warfare in the Developing World,” Journal of Strategic Studies 19, no. 2 (June 1996).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Offense, Defense, and the End of the Cold War: Criteria for an Appropriate Balance,” Defense Analysis 11, no. 1 (1995).
Stephen D. Biddle and Julia Klare, “Military Utility and the Control of Landmines,” UN Institute for Disarmament Research Newsletter, no. 28/29 (1994/1995).
Stephen D. Biddle, “The European Conventional Balance: A Reinterpretation of the Debate,” Survival (March/April 1988); also published as “The European Conventional Balance Debate: A Reinterpretation,” in W. Thomas Wander, ed., Nuclear and Conventional Forces in Europe: Implications for Security and Arms Control (Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1987).

Book Chapters

Stephen D. Biddle, “Policy Implications for the United States,” in David Lake and Eli Berman, eds., Proxy Wars: Fighting Terrorists, Insurgents, and Drug Lords through Local Agents (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2019).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Theory and Practice of Continental Warfare,” in John Baylis, James J. Wirtz, and Colin S. Gray, eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World, 5th ed (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).
Stephen D. Biddle and Peter Feaver, “Assessing Strategic Choices in the War on Terror,” in Beth Bailey and Richard Immerman, eds., Understanding the U.S. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (New York: NYU Press, 2015). Revised version in James Burk, ed., How 9/11 Changed Our Ways of War (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Assessing the Islamic State Threat,” in Jon B. Alterman, ed., Rocky Harbors: Taking Stock of the Middle East in 2015 (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2015).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Lessons Learned in Afghanistan and Iraq,” in Seyom Brown and Robert H. Scales, eds., U.S. Policy in Afghanistan and Iraq: Lessons and Legacies (Boulder: Lynn Rienner, 2012).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Military Effectiveness,” in Robert Denemark et al., eds., The International Studies Encyclopedia (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010).
Stephen D. Biddle, Michael O’Hanlon, and Kenneth Pollack, “The Evolution of Iraq Strategy,” in Richard N. Haass and Martin Indyk, eds., Restoring the Balance: A Middle East Strategy for the Next President (Washington, DC: Brookings, 2008).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Iraq, Afghanistan, and American Military Transformation,” in James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen and John Baylis, eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World, 2d edition (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Explaining Military Outcomes,” in Risa A. Brooks and Elizabeth A. Stanley, eds., Creating Military Power: The Sources of Military Effectiveness (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Toppling the Taliban in Afghanistan,” in Jan Engstrom, ed., Understanding Victory and Defeat in Contemporary War (London: Routledge, 2007).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Land Warfare: Theory and Practice,” in James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen, and John Baylis, eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Technology, Civil-Military Relations and Warfare in Southern Asia,” in Eric Arnett, ed., Military Capacity and the Risk of War: China, India, Pakistan and Iran (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Tactical Level Stability Hypotheses and Tests,” in Reiner K. Huber and Rudolf Avenhaus, eds., Models for Security Policy in the Post-Cold War Era (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1996).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Explaining the Loss-Exchange Ratio in the Gulf War,” in Hans W. Hofmann and Heinz Schelle, eds., 33 Jahre militarische Systemanalyse [33 Years of Military Systems Analysis] (Munich: Universitat der Bundeswehr, 1996).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Recent Trends in Armor, Infantry and Artillery Technology: Developments and Implications,” in W. Thomas Wander, ed., The Diffusion of Advanced Weaponry (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1994).
Stephen D. Biddle, “U.S. Forces in Europe,” in Charles F. Hermann, ed., American Defense Annual 1994 (New York: Lexington Books, 1994).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Offense-Defense Balance, Force-to-Space Ratios, and Defense Effectiveness,” in J. Philip Rogers, ed., The Future of European Security: The Pursuit of Peace in an Era of Revolutionary Change (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Criteria, Modelling Approaches and Analysis Requirements,” in Reiner Huber, ed., Military Stability (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1990).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Can Conventional Forces Substitute for Battlefield Nuclear Weapons?,” in Stephen D. Biddle and Peter D. Feaver, eds., Battlefield Nuclear Weapons:  Issues and Options (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1989).

Other Articles, Testimoney and Reports

Stephen Biddle, “How wars end follow-up discussion,” interview with Marco Werman, The World, 8 August 2022.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Is There a Difference Between ‘Offensive’ and ‘Defensive’ Weapons? In Ukraine and Beyond, Determination and Tactics Matter More than the Mix of Weapons,” Washington Post Monkey Cage, 28 April 2022.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Arming Ukraine is Worth the Risk,” Foreign Affairs online, 11 March 2022.
Stephen D. Biddle with Wade Hinkle and Michael Fischerkeller, Beyond Firepower: Including Skill and Operational Sophistication in Combat Modeling, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-3477.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Afghanistan: What Went Wrong?” ColumbiaDC Channel, 6 October 2021.
Stephen D. Biddle with Yuri Zhukov, “Afghanistan’s security forces unraveled this month. What broke their seven-year stalemate with the Taliban?” Washington Post Monkey Cage, 31 August 2021.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Evaluating the U.S. Military Contribution in Afghanistan,” Testimony Before the House Armed Services Committee, Hearing on “The US Military Mission in Afghanistan and Implications of the Peace Process on US Involvement,” 2nd Session, 116th Congress, 20 November 2020.
Stephen D. Biddle, H-Diplo/ISSF Roundtable Review of Jon R. Lindsay, Information Technology and Military Power, 12 September 2020.
Stephen D. Biddle with Tami Davis Biddle, “Wartime Lessons for Industrial Mobilization in a Time of Pandemic,” War on the Rocks, 3 April 2020.
Ryan Baker, Stephen D. Biddle, and Julia MacDonald, “The Trump administration wants to send more military advisers to Afghanistan. Good luck with that,” Washington Post Monkey Cage, 15 May 2017.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Trump’s Appetite for Risk Spells Trouble for US National Security,” Fortune Magazine, 7 April 2017.
Stephen D. Biddle and Jacob Shapiro, “The Problem With Vows to ‘Defeat’ the Islamic State,” The Atlantic, 21 August 2016.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Afghanistan Needs a Settlement, Not Another Troop-Withdrawal Deadline,” Defense One, 7 June 2016.
Stephen D. Biddle and Jacob Shapiro, “America Can’t Do Much About ISIS,” The Atlantic, 20 April 2016.
Stephen D. Biddle and Jacob Shapiro, “Here’s why we can only contain the Islamic State, not bomb it back to the Stone Age,” Washington Post Monkey Cage, 1 December 2015.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Stop Putting Afghanistan on a Deadline,” Defense One, 24 March 2015.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Evaluating U.S. Options for Iraq,” Testimony Before the House Armed Services Committee, Hearing on “Security Situation in Iraq and Syria: U.S. Policy Options and Implications for the Region,” Second Session, 113th Congress, 29 July 2014.
Stephen D. Biddle and Ivan Oelrich, “Why the Ukraine Separatists Screwed Up: Badly Organized Insurgents Can’t Master Complex Weapon Systems,” Washington Post Monkey Cage, 21 July 2014.
Stephen D. Biddle and Caitlin Talmadge, “Assessing Options for Iraq,” Memorandum for National Security Advisor Susan Rice and Deputy National Security Advisor Antony Blinken23 June 2014.
Stephen D. Biddle, “War Termination in Afghanistan,” Testimony Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on the Middle East and North Africa and Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, Hearing on “After the Withdrawal: The Way Forward in Afghanistan and Pakistan,” United States House of Representatives, First Session, 113th Congress, 29 October 2013.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Assessing the Case for Striking Syria,” Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security, United States House of Representatives, Hearing on “Crisis in Syria: Implications for Homeland Security,” First Session, 113th Congress, 10 September 2013.
Stephen D. Biddle with Jeffrey Friedman and Jacob Shapiro, “Authors’ Response to H-Diplo | ISSF Article Review, 2013: 4,” 22 May 2013.
Stephen D. Biddle and Michael O’Hanlon, “Hamid Karzai, Confused by the U.S.,” Washington Post, 29 March 2013.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Salvaging Governance Reform in Afghanistan,” Council on Foreign Relations Policy Innovation Memorandum, no. 16 (April 2012).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Running Out of Time for Afghan Governance Reform: How Little Can We Live With?,” Foreign Affairs online, 16 December 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Future War Up Close: Enemy Can Limit Value of Deep Strike,” Defense News, 8-14 October 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Learning to Live With Insecurity In A Post 9/11 World,” Business Insider, 30 August 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Long Term Goals for Afghanistan and Their Near Term Implications,” Testimony Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, Hearings on “Steps Needed for a Successful 2014 Transition in Afghanistan,” United States Senate, First Session, 112th Congress, 10 May 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Reconsidering the Afghan War,” in “The War on Terror After Osama bin Laden,” New York Times Online, Room for Debate: A Running Commentary on the News, 3 May 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, “How Much Should U.S. Policy Change?,” Boston Globe, 3 May 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle and Michael O’Hanlon, “U.S. Progress in Afghanistan Easier for Soldiers to See than Civilians,” Baltimore Sun, 5 April 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, “When Interests Diverge,” in “Is There an Obama Doctrine?,” New York Times Online, Room for Debate: A Running Commentary on the News, 30 March 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle and Michael O’Hanlon, “Slogging it Out in Afghanistan,” Washington Times, 25 March 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, “The Libya Dilemma: The Limits of Airpower,” Washington Post, 25 March 2011.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Iraq Joint Campaign Plan Assessment Team Report, US Forces Iraq (USF-I) Headquarters, Baghdad, Iraq, November 2010.
Stephen D. Biddle, “War by Other Means,” Foreign Policy online, 27 September 2010.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Lessons from the Balkans,” in “Getting the Troops Out of Iraq,” New York Times Online, Room for Debate: A Running Commentary on the News, 2 August 2010.
Stephen D. Biddle, “How to Manage Karzai,” Washington Post, 10 May 2010.
Stephen D. Biddle, “A Tale of Two Convoys,” International Herald Tribune, 9 March 2010. Also published in New York Times online8 March 2010.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Unfinished Business in Iraq,” Suddeutsche Zeitung, Munich Security Conference Supplement, 5 February 2010.
Stephen D. Biddle, “The U.S. and Afghanistan: Next Steps,” Aspen Institute Congressional Program 25, no. 3 (2010).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Assessing U.S. Options for Afghanistan,” Testimony Before the Committee on Armed Services, United States House of Representatives, First Session, 111th Congress, 14 October 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Assessing the Case for War in Afghanistan,” Testimony Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, First Session, 111th Congress, 16 September 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, COMISAF Initial Strategic Assessment Team Report, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Headquarters, Kabul, Afghanistan, August 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Using Sticks,” New York Times Online, Room for Debate: A Running Commentary on the News, 30 July 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Peacekeeping, Not Training,” New York Times Online, Room for Debate: A Running Commentary on the News, 30 July 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Funding the U.S. Counterinsurgency Wars,” Council on Foreign Relations, 19 June 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Contingency Planning Memorandum No. 2: Reversal in Iraq,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Afghanistan, Iraq, and U.S. Strategy in 2009,” Testimony Before the Committee on Armed Services, United States House of Representatives, First Session, 111th Congress, 12 February 2009.
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, The 2006 Lebanon Campaign and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, September 2008.
Stephen D. Biddle, Michael O’Hanlon, and Kenneth Pollack, “Not Quite Ready to Go Home,” New York Times, 5 August 2008.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Stabilizing Iraq from the Bottom Up,” Testimony Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Second Session, 110th Congress, 2 April 2008.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Iraq After the Surge,” Testimony Before the Committee on Armed Services Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee, United States House of Representatives, Second Session, 110th Congress, 23 January 2008.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Iraq: Can We Guard What We’ve Gained?,” Washington Post, 9 December 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle and Jeffrey Friedman, “The Iraq Data Debate: Civilian Casualties from 2006 to 2007,” Council on Foreign Relations, 25 September 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle and Larry Korb, “Violence by the Numbers in Iraq: Sound Data or Shaky Statistics? An Online Debate with Stephen Biddle and Larry Korb,” Council on Foreign Relations, 25 September 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Evaluating Options for Partial Withdrawals from Iraq,” Testimony Before the House Armed Services Committee Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations in Alternatives for Iraq, Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, First Session, 110th Congress, 25 July 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Go Deep or Get Out,” Washington Post, 11 July 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Hard Bargaining,” Boston Globe, 3 June 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Joint Strategic Assessment Team Report, Multinational Force Iraq (MNF-I) Headquarters, Baghdad, Iraq, April 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Not a Sign of Success,” Guardian, 21 February 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Teuer und halbherzig” [“Expensive and Halfhearted,”] Suddeutsche Zeitung, 12 February 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, “A Gamble at Long Odds,” The National Interest, 12 January 2007.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Recommendations Regarding US Strategy in Iraq,” Presentation to the President and Vice President of the United States, 11 December 2006.
Stephen D. Biddle, “There is no Middle Ground,” Guardian, 8 December 2006.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Heading for the Exit,” Foreign Affairs online, 7 December 2006.
Stephen D. Biddle and Ray Rakeyh, “The Limits of Force: The Iraq Syndrome Will Haunt America,” International Herald Tribune, 16 August 2006.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Responses to ‘What to Do in Iraq,'” Foreign Affairs online, 17 July 2006.
Stephen D. Biddle, “No, it’s not Vietnam. This one’s a civil war,” International Herald Tribune, 3 March 2006.
Stephen D. Biddle, Review of The Continental School of Strategy: The Past, Present, and Future of Land Warfare by Michael Evans, Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 1 (2006).
Stephen D. Biddle, American Grand Strategy After 9/11: An Assessment, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, April 2005.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Special Forces and the Future of Warfare,” in H. H. Gaffney, ed., The Changing Nature of Warfare: Papers Submitted for the National Intelligence Council’s Global Trends 2020 Project (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 2004), CIM D0010476.A1.
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, Toppling Saddam: Iraq and American Military Transformation, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, April 2004.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Iraq and the Future of Warfare,” Testimony Before the House Armed Services Committee in Operation Iraqi Freedom: An Outside Perspective, Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, First Session, 108th Congress, October 2003.
Stephen D. Biddle, Afghanistan and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2002).
Stephen D. Biddle, War Aims and War Termination, Defeating Terrorism Strategic Issue Analysis, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, October 2001; Reprinted in Daniel J. Kaufman, Jay M. Parker, and Patrick V. Howell, eds., Through Alternative Lenses (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003).
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Military Coercion in Bosnia: A Case Study, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA D-2982, January 1998. Also published in Papers from the 65th Annual Symposium of the Military Operations Research Society (Alexandria, VA: MORS, 1998).
Stephen D. Biddle with Johnathan Wallis and Wade Hinkle, “The Frequency and Nature of U.S. Military Operations,” Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA D-2109, February 1998.
Stephen D. Biddle, The Sources of Coercive Leverage, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-3384, February 1998.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Learning the (Wrong) Lessons From the Gulf War,” The Wall Street Journal, 3 September 1997.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Commentary on Victory Misunderstood,” Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA D-2014, September 1997.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Why You Can’t Get A Lot for A Little,” Review of Robert Pape, Bombing to Win:  Airpower and Coercion in War, in Mershon International Studies Review 41 (May 1997).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Explaining the Coalition Loss Rate in the Gulf War,” in Papers from the 64th Annual Symposium of the Military Operations Research Society (Alexandria, VA: MORS, 1997).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Downsizing the Military,” Review of Michael O’Hanlon, Defense Planning for the Late 1990s, in Issues in Science and Technology (Summer 1996).
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, Landmine Arms Control, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-3001, May 1996.
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, Missions, Threats and Tasks for Long Range Planning, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA D-1536, December 1995.
Stephen D. Biddle, Revolutionary Change in Warfare, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-3123, September 1995.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Stable Defense, NATO Defense Research Group Technical Report AC/243 (Panel 7) TR/5, April 1995.
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, The Military Utility of Landmines: Implications for Arms Control, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA D-1559, June 1994.
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, New Approaches to Planning for Emerging Long Term Threats, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-2896, Vol. 2, December 1993.
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, Stabilizing and Destabilizing Conventional Weapons, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-2548, September 1991.
Stephen D. Biddle, Project Director, Defense at Low Force Levels: The Effect of Force to Space Ratios on Conventional Combat Dynamics, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-2380, August 1991.
Stephen D. Biddle, “Gorbachev, Force Structure and the Defense Budge,” Testimony Before the Defense Policy Panel of the House Armed Services Committee in U.S. Defense Budgets in a Changing Threat Environment, Hearings Before the Defense Policy Panel of the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, First Session, 101st Congress, HASC No. 101-39, (Wash., D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1990).
Stephen D. Biddle, The State of Knowledge on the Determinants of Offensiveness and Defensiveness in Conventional Ground Forces, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-2295, October 1989.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, The Battlefield of the Future, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-2194, January 1989.
Stephen D. Biddle, “What Does Conventional Stability Mean, What Would a Stable Posture Look Like, and How Can Arms Control or Force Improvements Help Us Get There?,” Testimony Before the Defense Policy Panel of the House Armed Services Committee in Defining Stability in the European Theatre, Hearings Before the Defense Policy Panel of the Committee on Armed Services, Second Session, 100th Congress, HASC No. 100-104 (Wash. D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1989).
Stephen D. Biddle, “Time to Ask the Right Questions: The Conventional Balance Debate Likely to Miss the Mark,” Defense News, 15 February 1988.
Stephen D. Biddle, How to Think About Conventional-Nuclear Substitution, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1884, Vol. 1, January 1986; Vol. 2, May 1986.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Robust Operational Concepts, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1802, vol. 2, September 1985.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Assessing the Core Military Values of NATO’s Theater Nuclear Forces, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1693, March 1985.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, A Methodology for Assessing the Core Military Values of NATO’s Theater Nuclear Forces, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1724, June 1984.
Stephen D. Biddle, Targeting for Effectiveness Degradation on the Chemical Battlefield, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1729, September 1983.
Stephen D. Biddle, The Chemical Attrition Potential: A Static Assessment Methodology for Chemical Weapons, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1675, April 1983.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Net Assessment Methodologies and Critical Data Elements for Strategic and Theater Force Comparisons for Total Force Capability Assessment (TFCA), Interim Report, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1615, January 1982.
Stephen D. Biddle, co-author, Analysis of U.S. Antitank Trends, Institute for Defense Analyses, IDA P-1519, April 1981.