Erica Borghard & Shawn Lonergan in Strategic Studies Quarterly: Cyber Operations as Imperfect Tools of Escalation

September 19, 2019

Institute affiliate Erica Borghard and Shawn Lonergan have an article in the Fall 2019 issue of Strategic Studies Quarterly, entitled, “Cyber Operations as Imperfect Tools of Escalation.” In the article they posit that cyber escalation has not occurred because cyber operations are poor tools of escalation, and that this stems from key characteristics of offensive cyber capabilities that limit escalation through four mechanisms.